Validating computer attitude questionnaire

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To increase and optimize such benefits, researchers have focused on: 1) diverse teaching methods for STEM (Wallace & Webb, 2016; Shahin & Top, 2015) , and 2) the role of students’ cognitive attitude to achieve in STEM (Han, Rosli, Capraro, & Capraro, 2016; Han & Carpenter, 2014; Shahin & Top, 2015; Kumari & Nandal, 2016; Lou, Liu, Shih, & Tseng, 2011; Mohr-Schroeder et al., 2014; Najafi, Ebrahimitabass, Dehghani, & Rezaei, 2012) .

Aligned with the second trend in the literature of STEM, providing a reliable tool to assess students’ attitude toward STEM education and the corresponding teaching strategy have also been central to study.

One of the important findings of their study was that PBL was more effective in changing students’ attitude toward engineering rather than mathematics.

This reveals that students who participate in STEM-PBL education may have the propensity to choose science and mathematics courses in their final years of high school.

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The interdisciplinary curriculum of science, technology, engineering, math, and project-based learning (STEM-PBL) has currently received deep contemplation for its diverse benefits.

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Thus, its characteristics and applicability through assessing students’ perspectives (attitude) toward STEM need to be more researched.

2) Students’ Attitude toward STEM-PBL: Students’ attitude toward STEM-PBL refers to the way students think and feel about the STEM and the way they involved themselves in the process of learning through PBL.

Specifically, creating positive attitude toward learning, which affects academic achievement, was emphasized by different researchers (Vanessa, 2015 cited in Kumari & Nandal, 2016 ).

Other findings indicated that students learn better when they are authentically involved in meaningful activities and are engaged in a real-world problem, which makes the learning context more relevant for them (Stearns, Morgan, Capraro, & Capraro, 2012) .

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