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For the Old Kingdom, consensus fluctuates by as much as a few centuries, but for the Middle and New Kingdoms, it has been stable to within a few decades.

This is illustrated by comparing the chronology as given by two Egyptologists, the first writing in 1906, the second in 2000 (all dates in the table are BC).

The disparities between the two sets of dates result from additional discoveries and refined understanding of the still very incomplete source evidence.

For example, Breasted adds a ruler in the Twentieth dynasty that further research showed did not exist.

Following Manetho, Breasted also believed all the dynasties were sequential, whereas it is now known that several existed at the same time.

These revisions have resulted in a lowering of the conventional chronology by up to 400 years at the beginning of Dynasty I.

Forming the backbone of Egyptian chronology are the regnal years as recorded in Ancient Egyptian king lists.

Surviving king lists are either comprehensive but have significant gaps in their text (for example, the Turin King List), or are textually complete but fail to provide a complete list of rulers (for example, the Abydos King List), even for a short period of Egyptian history.

The Sothic cycle is the extended calendar that the Egyptologist Eduard Meyer invented in 1904 in an attempt to standardize the dates given on Egyptian documents (carved in stone or written on papyrus) and produce a unified chronology of ancient Egypt.

Finally, young earth creationists reject any scheme that would suggest or imply that the Egyptian state began any earlier than the Global Flood--which occurred no later than 2243 BC and possibly as early in time as 2563 BC.

The academic community appears confused as to whether to accept the Sothic cycle or not.

For the fixing in time of the Egyptian Middle Kingdom and the periods preceding it, the key date is the seventh year of the reign of King Sesostris III of the Twelfth Dynasty.

In this year, a helical rising of the star Sothis (our Sirius) was recorded on 16.

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